Planting and caring for frost-resistant varieties of hydrangea in Siberia
The territory of Siberia is deservedly considered the coldest region of Russia, so it is not surprising that many plants, in particular flowers, simply can not survive the harsh Siberian winter. Whether it concerns hydrangeas and what the gardener should know when planting on his plot in this case - read on.
Is hydrangea growing in Siberia
The average air temperatures typical for Siberia in the winter are in the range of -30 ... -40 ° C, so if hydrangea is grown on this territory, then only winter-hardy varietal varieties of the flower will have to be selected, providing them with proper care throughout the entire growth period and cultural development. Particular attention is required to young plants planted this year, and if there is any doubt about their frost resistance, it is better to build a shelter. So the chances of flowering next year will be much greater.
The best frost-resistant varieties for Siberia
Regardless of the specific type of hydrangea, all cultivated varieties must withstand a temperature drop of -40 ° C, which is usually indicated on the package with seed material.
Important! Whatever variety you choose, planting seedlings in open ground should be carried out only in the warm season of the year, when the substrate warms up to + 8 ... + 10 ° С.
Thanks to the work of modern breeders, the following are the most popular flower varieties for Siberia:
- large-leaved winter-hardy flowers, varieties Forever & Ever, Endless Summer, You and Me, Hovaria, Schloss Wackerbarth;
- tree forms, varieties Strong Annabelle, Annabelle, Invincibelle, Grandiflora;
- panicled varietal varieties, in particular Pinky Winky, Silver Dollar, Vanille Fraise.
If you are planning to plant any of them on your site, you should learn more about the appearance and main characteristics of these frost-resistant plants:
- Pinky Winky One of panicled varieties of these colors, with an extraordinary ability to change color 2-3 times over the entire flowering time. So, at the beginning the buds are white, then they look soft pink, and at the end they get dark raspberry or dark red. The stem of Pinky Winky plants is branched, but very strong and often reaches a length of 1.6–2.2 m, expanding to a width of 1.4–2 m. The leaf plates are oval, with a slight sharpening at the tip. During the season, buds can change their color from saturated green to purple. Flowering, according to the description, begins in the middle of the first summer month and lasts until the end of September, in rare cases even lasting in early October. Despite the relatively high winter hardiness of representatives of this variety, they are best planted in the southern regions of Siberia, and when planting in the far north, you will have to either shelter the plants before the cold season, or grow flowers in pots.
- Silver Dollar. All instances of this variety are tall plants with snow-white flowers that are connected into large cone-shaped inflorescences. Toward the end of flowering, they change their color to pale pink. Shoots are dense and erect, grow quickly and often reach a height of 3 m, with average values of 1.5–2 m. The stems are branched and well developed, with green branches of the current year and last year's brown. Deep green leaf plates are oval, slightly pointed at the end and with small teeth along the edge. The flowering of these hydrangeas begins in mid-July and lasts until the beginning of autumn.
- Annabelle - a representative of a tree-like variety of culture with white flowers, with a diameter of about 23–25 cm. The appearance of the first buds occurs at the end of June, and flowering plants can be observed until the end of August or the beginning of autumn. Annabelle cultivars often reach a height of 1.5 m, growing to a width of 3.5 m. Like the previous version, they take root well in the gardens of central and southern Russia, but in the northern regions they will not be able to grow in winter without shelter, therefore for the cold period they are temporarily transplanted into pots.
- Strong annabelle - garden hydrangea, actively used by landscape designers for landscaping private areas (design using flowers always looks advantageous).The most interesting part of this culture is a domed or hat-shaped inflorescence, which during flowering in color resembles a snow-mint mixture. A little later, the flowers become light green, but at the same time do not lose their decorative effect. The height of the plants is 1.5 m, with a width of 1-1.3 m. Leaf blades are oval, dark green in color, and their color does not change throughout the growing season, right up to the first frosts.
- Vanille fraise - a representative paniculate one and a half meter hydrangea, with erect, stretching up stems. Flower brushes have a conical shape and are more like a “chameleon" in color, changing their color from white in the initial stages of flowering to raspberry or burgundy near the end of this process. In general, the buds are on the bushes for up to three months (from mid-summer to early fall). When grown in the very northern regions, Vanille Fraise flowers need to arrange winter shelter or a temporary transplant until the temperature outside rises again. Vanille Fraise seeds are characterized by weak germination, therefore vegetative methods are more suitable for plant propagation in the plot (it is almost impossible to grow a new flower with characteristics identical to the mother’s sample).
- Forever & ever - bushy hydrangea, up to 1 m high and about 0.8 m wide. Spherical inflorescences are blue in color, gradually changing color from light tones to dark purple. They differ in maximum decorativeness at the end of August, when their flowering peak is observed.
- You and me - Another bushy hydrangea growing up to 0.8 m, with slightly lowered shoots. Inflorescences are rounded and based on the level of soil acidity can be characterized by white, pink or blue colors. Young leaf plates are usually characterized by a deep green color, but over time they turn brown and turn yellow-red. The peak of flowering in this case falls on September.
- Hovaria - A good solution for growing in the southern and middle territories of Siberia (in the northern regions, seasonal transplantation for the time of colds will be relevant). Blue-violet spherical flowers reach a diameter of 25 cm, with shoot height from two to four meters. As in previous cases, the plant acquires maximum decorativeness towards the end of the summer season, and in the harsh northern regions of Siberia it needs additional protection against frosty winters.
Landing Rules in Siberia
Planting of selected garden flowers in Siberia is not much different from the similar process in other climatic regions of Russia, but for young plants to adapt quickly on the site and bloom well in the future, it is worth knowing about some features of planting events. First of all, this concerns the choice of a specific time and place of landing, although you should not ignore the features of the landing itself.
When to plant
It is not in vain that Siberia is considered the coldest part of the Russian Federation, because spring is late and winter is very early. This led to the choice of certain dates for planting flower plants, which in the case of hydrangea should occur in late May or early June, depending on weather conditions at a particular point in time. Rainy and cloudy days are not the best moment for the implementation of the plan, which can not be said about a sunny day, after a slight drying of the upper soil layer.
Seat and Seedling Selection
Hydrangea grows pretty quickly, so you can plant two or three year old plants on the site right away, choosing bushes with a well-developed root system when buying. On the shoots and leaves of the acquired specimens there should be no signs of decay or pest damage, otherwise one cannot be sure of the normal growth and development of such a plant.Before planting, the hydrangea rhizome should be poured with water for 2 hours, adding a very weak solution of potassium permanganate to the liquid for disinfection.
Important! For propagation of varietal plants, experienced gardeners recommend using the branches of the mother bush remaining after cutting, so buying a seedling of the same variety as the one that is already growing on the site does not make sense.
When buying a varietal variety of culture, always check with the seller what the size of an adult shrub will be in order to plan its placement in advance. For fast-growing forms, open areas located no less than 1.5–2 m from other plants are suitable. Hydrangea can be planted at the point of accumulation of snow, because its gradual melting in the spring will help to better provide the culture with moisture.
With the correct implementation of the preparatory measures, there is every chance that further care for the flower will require less effort, so the issue of preparing the soil and the landing hole itself should be given increased attention. The dimensions of the pit are selected depending on the size of the rhizome of the seedling; therefore, for small plants, width and length of 50–55 cm are sufficient, but for large specimens, a hole with a diameter of at least 80 cm will have to be prepared.
Based on the length of the roots, the depth of the seat is also selected, but in most cases 40-60 cm are enough.
The preparation of the soil in the hole should begin one day before the proposed planting, performing the following sequential steps:
- First, 2-3 buckets of water are poured into the pit and wait at least 12 hours until it is absorbed.
- Then mix 2/6 parts of peat, the same amount of fertile soil and 1/6 part of sand and humus. To increase the nutritional value of the finished substrate, it is recommended to add 25 g of urea, 65 g of superphosphate, 25 g of potassium sulfate to the mixture.
Important! Lime should not get into the soil for hydrangea, otherwise the plant will immediately become ill and may soon die.
Adding spruce or pine needles to the ground will help to increase the friability of the soil, with further filling with prepared substrate half of the entire volume of the pit.
Planting hydrangea in open soil for all regions of cultivation is performed according to the same scheme:
- First, it is worth trimming the roots of the plant and remove the extra parts of the shoots, so that there are segments up to a maximum of the 5th or 6th kidney.
- Then place the seedling in the center of the prepared planting hole and straighten its roots (at the end of planting, the root neck should be at ground level).
- At the end of the procedure, it remains to sprinkle the roots with the remaining soil, lightly tamp the surface, pour and mulch it with needles or wood sawdust for better preservation of moisture.
Video: planting hydrangea
No additional actions will be required from you, and if there is sufficient lighting, moderate moisture and the absence of strong gusts of wind, the young flower will quickly grow.
Features of care in the Siberian climate
For active growth and regular abundant flowering, hydrangeas need a lot of moisture and nutrients, so watering and top dressing become the first priority when caring for this crop. In addition, periodically pruning their shoots will help maintain the decorativeness of shrub plants, and so that immature flowers do not suffer from winter cold in the northern parts of Siberia, they also need to be well covered for the winter. Each aspect of crop care will have its own important characteristics.
Watering and feeding
The soil around the hydrangea bushes should always be slightly moist, because with insufficient moisture the flowering will not be so plentiful, and the branches will become sluggish and lifeless. When watering, a small amount of potassium permanganate solution can be added to the watering can, after diluting it in water to a slightly pink color. If the summer season turned out to be arid, then the regularity of applying liquid to the soil will be 2-3 times a week, and with a rainy summer, watering the flowers is enough 1 time per month, as soon as the topsoil dries.
As for top dressing, both mineral and organic compounds will be appropriate here, the main thing is to decide on the most suitable time for using each of them. In spring, you can use liquid manure, diluted in water at a ratio of 1:10, and in the middle of summer or closer to autumn, fertilizing 20-30 g of prepared mineral fertilizers (for flower crops) previously dissolved in 10 l of water for irrigation will be useful for the crop . On average, at least two buckets of liquid nutrient compounds should be consumed per adult plant.
Did you know? The scientific name for hydrangea is “hydrangea”, which is literally interpreted as “a vessel with water”. Probably, the flower received such a “name” because of its increased moisture lovingness.
Periodic loosening of the soil under hydrangeas is an extremely important action, since it provides better air circulation between the root color system and the environment. It is best to start the procedure soon after the next watering, as soon as all the moisture is well absorbed into the substrate. It is not worthwhile to deepen the rake deeply, it is enough to fluff the top 10-15 cm, being careful not to damage the rhizomes of the flowers.
Having finished with loosening, it is recommended to mulch the surface of the substrate using dry sawdust, peat or pine needles. The material must be laid on the surface of the beds with a 5-centimeter embankment.
Trimming and Shaping
Formative pruning is a prerequisite for hydrangea cultivation, including in Siberia. Without it, it will not be possible to maintain a high decorative shrub and all care efforts will be in vain.
Shortening the shoots of the plant can be performed in several runs, but be sure to observe the basic rules:
- pruning is allowed in spring or autumn when the kidneys are in a dormant state;
- all faded inflorescences must be removed in a timely manner so that they do not thicken the bush and do not interfere with the development of young branches;
- when pruning shoots, at least three or five buds should remain on each of them, and 2-3 at the lateral shoots of panicled variety;
- rejuvenation of the culture is carried out after four years of growing shoots and involves the removal of old branches in order to replace them with new, young and healthy ones.
Whatever cutting you carry out, always use only a sharp secateurs, which will not leave a burr in the places of cuts. To disinfect the plants and prevent the development of diseases, at the end of the procedure, the places of cuts should be treated with garden varieties (used in gardening when pruning fruit and ornamental trees).
Despite the high frost resistance of the above varieties of hydrangea, many of them do not survive the harsh winters characteristic of the extremely northern territories of Siberia. Therefore, in the cold season, you have to either transplant them into pots, or arrange shelters directly in the place of growing the bush.In the latter case, the role of the insulating material is perfect for manure or a thick layer of fallen leaves and spruce branches, laid out on a bed in several smaller layers.
For greater shelter efficiency over trimmed shrubs, you can equip the frame by covering it on top with a film or slate. Snow that fell later will be an excellent natural insulation for plants, and they can winter without problems in such conditions.
To obtain new copies of flowers or expand the existing collection of hydrangeas, gardeners can use several basic methods of propagation of the culture at once. However, do not forget that each of them will have its advantages and disadvantages, which make it the most suitable in some situations and not at all appropriate in others. In order not to be mistaken in your choice, it is worthwhile to study in advance the main features of each possible option, taking into account the requirements for the further cultivation of new instances of hydrangea.
As with the cultivation of other garden vegetation, among the most relevant ways of propagating the described flowers in Siberia will be the following:
- Seed. This method is only suitable for increasing the number of plants created by nature, since varieties bred by breeders when propagated by seeds do not always retain their external features and often lose aesthetic properties. For planting seedlings, special cassette containers filled with ready-made soil mix for flower crops are suitable. It is not necessary to squeeze each seed into the soil - just spread them out on the surface of moistened ground, cover with polyethylene or glass and, regularly airing, wait for emergence (on average, the first sprouts hatch after 20 days, after which they grow for another three years at home, and then transplanted to a permanent place of growth in the garden). For the first time, seedlings should be opened after drying of the surface soil layer for planned wetting of the substrate.
- Cuttings. The most convenient way of propagating varietal varieties of hydrangeas, which helps to obtain new copies, with characteristics that are most appropriate for an adult mother plant. For the successful completion of the procedure, at the beginning of the budding period of an existing specimen, it is necessary to cut leafy branches with 2-3 buds on them, and then move the segments into a glass of clean water (cuts down). After this, the cut-off shoot needs to be divided into several parts, only so that 2-3 pairs of leaves remain on each of them. The lower leaf plates can be removed and the upper ones slightly shortened by cutting off the top of the sheet. Before planting, it is advisable to lower the finished cuttings into the root formation stimulator for several hours, leaving the container with them in a dark place. After planting in the prepared soil, young leaves on the cuttings will appear within a month.
- Layering. This method of propagation is more suitable for use in the southern regions of Siberia, since in northern growing conditions the plants usually have much less time for the formation of the root system of layering before the onset of cold weather. To perform all the steps correctly, first level the ground under the selected bush and make several grooves, the number of which should correspond to the number of future layering. Put the lower shoots of hydrangea into the grooves and, having fixed them with metal brackets, fill the holes with earth. Throughout the summer (such reproduction is best done in spring), all parts of hydrangea should be well watered, and then by the autumn young shoots should appear.
- By dividing the bush. In this case, planting material can be obtained by transplanting the mother bush to a new place, and all that needs to be done is to separate the roots and several shoots coming from them from the earthen coma. Each of the received parts is planted in the prepared hole prepared for it as an ordinary purchased seedling.
When growing hydrangea in the Siberian region, the most successful solution for most summer residents will be plant propagation by cuttings, with home growing of harvested planting material. Alternatively, you can use the method of dividing the bush and separation from the maternal instance of layering, but here you must clearly follow the timelines for the procedure to make the new plant grow stronger before the onset of frost and calmly endure the winter.
Did you know? There is no exact data on the origin of hydrangea today, but thanks to archaeological excavations conducted in North America, there is every reason to believe that this flower grew on Earth 40,000 years ago.
Transfer to a permanent place
The timing of transplantation of newly obtained hydrangea plants depends on the method of reproduction, therefore, layering can be separated from the mother bush no earlier than 3 years after instillation, and young grown cuttings will be ready for this procedure in 2–4 years. Seedlings obtained from seeds develop even longer, so in this case you need to focus on the condition of the youngest plant (immature specimens will die during the first frost).
The planting process itself during the transplantation of a grown young plant is no different from the actions performed when placing acquired seedlings on the site, and in the same way consists of several main stages:
- Preparation of a landing pit and filling it with a nutritious soil mixture with peat and sand (1/6 of sand and humus and 2/6 of peat and fertile substrate).
- Removing the seedling from the seedling tank and placing it in the center of the hole, with further sealing of the rhizome with a nutrient earth mixture.
- Watering and mulching the near-trunk zone with sawdust or needles.
In the future, you can take care of young plants according to the general plan, with regular watering, fertilizers, periodic pruning of plants (formative and sanitary), as well as protection from frosty winters by creating shelter (more relevant for the northern regions).
In general, the cultivation of hydrangea in Siberia is a doable task. The main thing is to choose the most suitable frost-resistant plant variety and not make mistakes when planting and further growing the crop. As in other regions, a flowering shrub can be an excellent addition to any summer cottage.