Description of Sea Buckthorn Giant
Sea buckthorn of the Giant variety is, contrary to its name, a relatively small tree that can grow in Western Siberia. The plant bears such a name because of the large fruits. But for the proper cultivation and care of sea buckthorn seedlings, the gardener needs to know a lot of details.
The Giant variety was developed back in 1961 at the Siberian Research Institute of Horticulture. This plant is of medium height: the height of a fully grown adult sea buckthorn can be 3.5 m. The shape of the crown is elongated oval, the branches are moderately thick and strong. The color of the bark is gray-brown. The deciduous cover is dark green. Leaves have a narrow and elongated shape.
Did you know? In ancient Greece, sea buckthorn was fed to horses to cure them of diseases. In addition, the fruits made animal hair shiny and soft.
The color of sea buckthorn berries is bright orange. The shape of the fruit is oblong. The weight of each berry is on average 1 g, which makes them real giants. Like all sea buckthorn varieties, the taste of the fruit is tart, but sweet and with sour notes. The composition of the pulp includes carotene, as well as vitamins B, C and E.
Giant is a late variety with large berries. They are not only remarkable for their size, but also for their unique taste. Winter hardiness of such sea-buckthorn is high, but does not like temperature changes. Immediately after the onset of spring heat, the tree begins to grow actively, but if there are frosts at night, young shoots will freeze and die. The popularity of the variety among summer residents is also determined by the absence of thorns that are inherent in other representatives of sea buckthorn.
It is noteworthy that Giant berries can be used universally. The fruits are suitable for consumption immediately after harvesting, and for cooking jam. For a short period of time, berries can be stored simply in a dark place with a temperature of + 15 ° C. With prolonged freezing in the freezer, sea buckthorn does not lose its taste and useful properties.
Gardeners will have to pay the time for large fruits of the Giant variety: berries appear only after 4-5 years from the moment of planting. At the same time, the yield becomes regular: in late September, a large number of berries fully ripen. With one adult sea buckthorn, the yield can reach 8 kg. Due to the fact that this variety is distinguished by strong branches, the fruits do not crumble to the ground.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Giant is a rather unique variety that is intended for cultivation in the eastern part of Russia and Siberia.
- This is due to its advantages, which include:
- high frost resistance;
- large size of berries;
- natural resistance to most fungal ailments;
- the possibility of transplantation.
- However, there are always disadvantages. The minuses of this variety of sea buckthorn include:
- slow growth of young trees;
- average yield compared to some other species;
- the need for a pollinator.
The plant has more positive qualities than negative ones. In addition, the gardener can cope with the shortcomings by planting not one, but several copies.
How to plant sea buckthorn
The success of the further growth of sea buckthorn completely depends on the correctness of the landing actions. It is important for the gardener to follow the correct algorithm so that the plant not only takes root correctly, but also survives. Although the Giant variety does not require complex procedures, an inexperienced summer resident may encounter difficulties. A novice gardener needs to choose the right planting material and prepare a plot of land on which it is planned to plant sea buckthorn.
Important! Since sea buckthorn Giant is self-infertile, at least one male and one female tree are required in the garden.
Before planting sea buckthorn, you need to do soil cultivation at the proposed planting site. First of all, the soil needs to be deeply plowed to destroy all weeds. It is important to know the current pH of the soil. If the earth contains too many acids, limestone must be added. The fertilizing mass should be 400 g per 1 m². If planting is planned for spring, you need to prepare the soil in November: at this moment, you need to add 5 buckets of humus per meter of land. It is recommended to add 200 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium salt to it.
Dig a hole under the seedling immediately before planting. The dimensions of the pit should be 60 × 60 × 65 cm. If more than one depression is being prepared, then the distance between them should be no less than 2 m.
Selection of seedlings
Young trees are best established at the age of 2 years. The gardener should pay attention to the integrity of the root system: it must be fully formed and not have dry areas. If it was not possible to select high-quality planting material, dried roots must be lowered into water for 48 hours. The plant will be saturated with moisture, and the roots will return to their previous state.
Pay your attention to the color of young leaves. The color should be uniform throughout the foliage. The presence of brown or dark spots may indicate a fungal disease. Dark spots or pallor of deciduous cover can be caused by an attack of pests. Such seedlings do not need to be bought and planted.
An inexperienced summer resident can plant one female sea buckthorn, which is fundamentally wrong. If you need only one plant, then for planting you need to choose exclusively a male shrub. It must be positioned in the direction of the wind. This is due to the fact that sea buckthorn flowers do not contain nectarine, which excludes the possibility of pollination by insects: only air flows play the main role. For the female tree Giant, Gnome and Alei varieties are well suited. In addition to high productivity, these representatives of sea buckthorn have high winter hardiness.
Important! For maximum pollination efficiency, up to 5 female trees need to be planted around one male tree.
It is noteworthy that young female bushes are smaller than male bushes. However, as the plants grow older, this changes: the Gnome and Alei become larger than the Giant.
The process of planting sea buckthorn varieties Giant will not be difficult for experienced summer residents.
It is necessary to act according to the following algorithm:
- Drive a stake of wood 1.5 m high into the prepared pit.
- Add soil around the stick so that a tubercle forms to a third of the depth of the recess.
- On the resulting hill, carefully install the seedling.
- Spread the root system.
- Prepare a nutrient mixture from an equal amount of soil, sand and humus.
- Cover the hole with the soil until the neck of the plant is at a depth of 3-4 cm.
- Tie a young tree to a stake.
- Form a hole with a diameter of up to 40 cm at the trunk.
- Pour buckthorn with 30 liters of water.
- Mulch with a mixture of equal amounts of peat and land.
In the first month after planting, the Giant needs to be watered daily with a bucket of water. This must be done so that sea buckthorn has taken root in the soil.
For the active growth of sea buckthorn, you need to take care of it. It is noteworthy that caring for the Giant variety is simple and any gardener will cope with it. It is enough only to carry out watering and make top dressing in a timely manner. It is important to trim enough mature trees. Although the plant is resistant to diseases, prophylaxis is still recommended, including from pests.
Watering and feeding
With the beginning of the growing season, when the growth of sea buckthorn is the most intense, you need to start watering. Young specimens are watered 4-5 times per season with 30 liters of water. Mature trees require up to 70 liters of fluid, depending on the size of the plant.So that moisture does not stagnate on the surface of the soil, after each irrigation, you need to loosen the earth. However, it is important not to damage the root system: the depth of cultivation should not exceed 10 cm. If you often cannot loosen it, you need to mulch it: lay the compost so that a layer of 5 cm is formed.
Provided that minerals were introduced during planting, no new ones are needed for the first 2 years. After 3 years, the need for the first feeding will already appear. This procedure should be repeated annually in April until the plant is 5 years old. Along the contour of the trunk circle, add 20 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m² of soil. Also, the gardener should prepare a solution: add 1 tablespoon of potassium humate to 10 liters of water. Enriched with water, you need to water the tree with the appearance of flowers on it twice. The interval should be approximately 3 weeks.
Did you know? Sea buckthorn in a sense is involved in the conquest of space. Products from the fruits of this plant are contained in the diet of Russian astronauts.
Every autumn, after loosening the soil, it is necessary to enrich the soil. To do this, prepare a mixture consisting of 30 g of superphosphate, the same amount of potassium salt and 150 g of ash per 1 m². If the earth’s acidity is high, you can add 50 g of phosphate rock for every square meter.
It is advisable to add bait with a nitrogen content in small quantities or not to use them at all. This is due to the fact that the root system of sea buckthorn itself is able to provide itself with this substance due to nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Pruning is an important part of caring for the Giant Sea Buckthorn. It allows you to rejuvenate the tree, and carry out the prevention of diseases, and give shape. Every fall you need to carry out a sanitary haircut. This will allow the plant to successfully survive the winter. With this type of pruning, everything is simple: the gardener must remove obviously damaged or aching branches. You can trim and branches that grow in the wrong direction where you would like. Removing physically broken areas also applies to root growth.
If the summer resident wants the Giant to take the form of a tree, not a bush, a spring haircut will also help. It is necessary to make sure that 4 skeletal branches are formed, which will become the basis of the structure. If the branches on young sea buckthorn are already growing in the right direction, then during the first 2 years pruning will not be necessary. However, when the structure of a young seedling does not have branches, it is necessary to shorten it to 35 cm. In a year, it will already be possible to shape with the help of skeletal branches.
Any sea buckthorn should be cut either in March or in November, when the juice does not move along the branches. After each haircut, all sections must be treated with garden var.
Anti-aging haircut is carried out 7 years after planting sea buckthorn. Due to the fact that this pruning is carried out in spring, in autumn you need to remember which branches do not bear fruit. It is these branches that need to be removed along with those that have undergone physical damage.
Although the Giant has high frost resistance with respect to all varieties of sea buckthorn, the gardener needs to prepare the plant for the winter period. First of all, it is necessary to form a mulch layer, the thickness of which should be at least 8 cm. Mulch can not only retain moisture, but also protect the roots of the tree from the effects of low temperatures. It is desirable to whiten young sea buckthorn: this applies both to the main trunk and the upper branches. The whitening solution consists of 200 g of lime in a bucket of water.
For a higher viscosity, 50 g of wood glue can be added. Sea buckthorn is whitened in order to protect it from the effects of cold during the winter, which provokes the appearance of cracks in the bark. After the end of the winter season, a layer of lime will reflect direct sunlight, which will eliminate the appearance of burns on the plant. In severe winter, the trees are insulated with thick cloth. The polyethylene film for sea buckthorn is not suitable: because of it, fresh air does not enter and moisture exchange does not occur.
Pest and Disease Control
One of the main advantages of the Giant variety is its high resistance to fungus that causes fusarium. Fusarium wilting is a common disease of plant crops, leading first to yellowing and partial death of tree sections, and then to complete death.
Among the diseases that are often found in sea buckthorn include scab. This ailment causes the appearance of black spots on the deciduous cover and branches of the plant. Scab can also affect berries, as a result of which gray tubercles with fungi appear on them. Leaves under the influence of this disease can curl and dry. To prevent scab, you need to carry out a sanitary haircut and destroy weeds in the garden.
If sea buckthorn was still affected, cut off the infected areas of the plant, and also a month before harvesting, spray the tree with a solution of Bordeaux liquid in proportion to water 1: 100.
Another ailment, endomycosis, leads to the destruction of the fetus. Gray mucus appears inside the berries, which makes the crop unsuitable for consumption. In addition, cracks form on the cortex due to endomycosis, and sea buckthorn generally begins to fade. For prevention, exterminate pests, loosen the soil and whiten the tree trunk. If the disease was detected, after flowering, use a solution of water and Bordeaux fluid, where its proportion should be 1%. In cases where this procedure did not help, in July sprinkle sea buckthorn with a 0.4% copper chloride solution.
Did you know? China grows 90% of all sea buckthorn trees on Earth. This is due to the fact that for 35 years in the last century, with the support of the state, 200 thousand hectares of these plants were planted.
Among pests, sea buckthorn aphids are common. This is a small insect with a green-gray color. It absorbs juice from leaves and young branches. In adult trees, aphids can be difficult to detect immediately because they settle at the very top. Because of it, falling leaves is possible. To prevent the occurrence of this pest, at the end of March it is necessary to treat sea buckthorn with home-made tinctures, which include onions or garlic. A mixture of tobacco infusion with soap is also suitable.
If aphid was found, then in the period of bud blooming, treat the affected areas with a 10% solution of the drug “Karbofos”. Spring sanitary pruning also plays a significant role in both prevention and extermination of insects.
Sea buckthorn moth lays eggs in August, which is why its caterpillars may appear at the beginning of the spring season. They feed on young buds and lead to the appearance of a cobweb-like layer on the deciduous cover. Since these insects are often transmitted by sea buckthorn from weeds, it is necessary to loosen the soil regularly and get rid of weed vegetation. The treatment consists in spraying the tree with a solution of Bordeaux fluid until the buds open.
Thus, the sea buckthorn of the Giant variety is a fairly unpretentious plant, giving an average amount of yield. The absence of thorns facilitates the collection of berries than this shrub and fell in love with summer residents. However, the tree is notable for its large and tasty fruits, ideal for making jam or butter, as well as for eating fresh. Although the Giant variety is undemanding and frost-resistant, it still needs proper care, and before the first berries appear, the gardener needs to grow a tree for about 5 years.