How to find and collect truffle in the suburbs
Truffle is the most expensive mushroom in the world. For many nations, it is considered a delicacy. It is appreciated for its nutritional value, unusual taste, reminiscent of fried seeds or walnuts, and a rich chemical composition. Is it possible to meet this representative of the mushroom kingdom in the Moscow region, the article will tell.
Truffle is classified as marsupials. The main distinguishing characteristic of this representative of the mushroom kingdom is the formation of fruiting bodies underground, at a depth of 30-50 cm. They are rounded or tuberous. The consistency is fleshy or cartilaginous. They can reach small sizes with a walnut or be like large potatoes. The outer layer, depending on the variety, is smooth, cracked or warty. The inner part consists of dark and light veins. In a section, it looks like marble.
Fresh quality mushroom has a sharp aroma. When pressed, it is soft, heavy in weight. The places of growth of the described fungi are deciduous forests. Truffle forms mycorrhiza with many trees.
Did you know? The French and Italians, in order to find truffles under the soil, resort to the help of specially trained dogs and pigs with a delicate sense of smell. Such animals can find fruiting bodies growing to a depth of 20 cm.
When does the picking season begin?
The most common types of truffle are black (perigorsk), Italian (white real), Chinese, winter. In Russia, you can meet only one species of the genus Tuber - black Russian or summer. Its fruiting bodies reach a diameter of 2.5-10 cm. The surface of the mushrooms is painted black. Their taste is nutty, sweet. The smell is pleasant. The fruiting of the Russian variety occurs in August - September.
Did you know? The most valuable varieties of truffles are sold under the hammer. So, in China, one of the participants in the auction posted 330 thousand dollars for a pair of white copies.
The skin is smooth, whitish. As it ripens, it becomes yellow-brown. This mushroom in some states is considered delicious, in others it is classified as poisonous, capable of causing poisoning. The collection season for the white species begins in late August and ends in November.
Do truffles grow in the Moscow region and how to find them
Both varieties that grow on the territory of Russia are also found in the suburbs. They appeared in the forests near Moscow for a long time.It is known that before the revolution in these places up to 100 tons of representatives of the white variety were collected annually. There is evidence that at one time they met even in the territory of modern Moscow in the grove, which was called so - Truffle.
Representatives of the white species are not too difficult to find. They are large and are located close to the surface of the earth, often appearing above the soil. They grow, usually in groups. Therefore, if one instance fell under your feet, you should look around in search of other representatives of the mushroom kingdom.Experts advise to go for the described mushrooms in areas with light, loose, moist soils, open and well-lit. It is better to drive 100 km from the city and search in the forest belts planted for the purpose of protection from the wind, where there is no thick grass.
Mushrooms can be found near the roots of such trees:
- larch trees;
Since truffles are most often found underground, you need to look for them under bumps protruding above the surface of the soil. A strong smell often attracts clusters of insects and animals to the place where fruit bodies grow.
Important! Representatives of the black species growing on the surface should not be collected. These are old specimens that have no nutritional value.
If the mushroom picker goes for the described representative of the mushroom kingdom for the first time, then it is advisable for him to take a photograph with him, so that after discovery he will be convinced that this is really a valuable mushroom. It is also important to familiarize yourself with images of other species that are similar to truffles. Among them, by the way, there may be inedible or instances with lower taste.So, for example, Broome's melanogaster, deer truffle, and ordinary scleroderma are similar to the white variety. All these mushrooms are unsuitable for food.
Since the described mushrooms prefer to grow in the same place, you can annually return to the same plot for harvesting. Some lovers of valuable mushrooms prefer to simplify the search with the help of an assistant - a dog. To do this, they teach them, rubbing a stick with truffle aroma and letting the animal smell it. In the future, such dogs quickly find fruiting bodies underground.
How to assemble it
Not only truffle searches can be difficult, but also the process of collecting them.
Gathering valuable mushrooms, you should act carefully and adhere to several rules:
- When finding a representative of the mushroom kingdom, clear the area around it.
- Do not tear fruit bodies out of the ground, but carefully remove them with a knife.
- To produce a slice without damaging the surface and root.
Important! Do not look for truffles in young forests. They have poor soil, unsuitable for the growth of the described fungi.