Description of elderberry black Aurea, its planting and care
Black elderberry Aurea is popular among gardeners because of its exotic appearance. In the article you will read about the botanical description of this shrub, the intricacies of its planting and care, as well as how you can use the plant in decorating the territory.
Botanical description of the plant
Black Elder Aurea (Sambucus nigra Aurea) is an ornamental deciduous shrub with a dense crown, the height of which is up to 3 m. The main trunk has a dark brown color, young shoots are light green. The plant has an oval crown shape, which becomes spherical with age.
The leaves of the shrub are initially saturated yellow-lemon in color, with age they acquire a dark green color. The edges of the leaves are uneven, jagged, oval in shape, and the size reaches 25 cm.
The flowers are light beige, small in size, arranged in panicled inflorescences and are located in the upper part of young branches. The berries have a saturated black color with a purple tint, size - up to 0.6 cm in diameter.
Important! Aurea black elderberry fruit is edible only at the time of biological ripeness. Unripe berries are toxic.
The most suitable areas for growing Aurea elderberry are the middle strip, the southern regions, as well as the North Caucasus.
Aurea black elderberry is sometimes confused with the Aurea cultivar of Canadian elderberry. Their tastes are almost identical, but the latter is higher by about 1 m, characterized by larger colors and a looser crown.
Video: Elderberry Aurea
When planting Aurea elderberry, several nuances must be taken into account. You should choose the right place, seedlings, and also adhere to the recommended planting dates and instructions. Let's consider each of these points in more detail.
Recommended Landing Times
The most suitable time for planting a bush in the spring is the end of April. However, it is necessary to do this only after the earth has completely warmed up, otherwise the plant will not take root.
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In autumn, it is recommended to plant Aurea in early November.. But in this case, you need to land no later than a decade before the expected cold weather. This will enable the seedling to take root.
For elderberry cultivation, it is recommended to choose fertile, moist soil with a neutral pH level.. The shrub grows well both in sunny areas and in shaded areas.
Important! The black elderberry Aurea does not need pollinators, so it can be planted at a distance from other plants.
The material must be selected based on the time of year when it will land.
In spring, you need to use annual seedlings with a smooth bark of light green color and developed roots. In autumn, you need to take seedlings of two years of age with a rhizome without dry parts.
Immediately before planting in the soil, the seedling must be placed in a solution of growth stimulant for 10 hours
To plant seedlings of black elderberry Aurea, you must follow a simple instruction:
- Prepare a landing pit, the perimeter of which will be 50 × 50 cm, with a depth of 0.5 m.
- The topsoil (about 4 buckets) must be mixed with compost, to which urea (60 g) and superphosphate (200 g) are added.
- Pour one bucket of the mixture at the bottom of the planting pit and add wood ash there.
- Place a seedling in a recess, spread its roots.
- Fill the hole with the seedling with the rest of the enriched soil.
- Conduct abundant watering.
- Mulch the basal circle with peat.
After planting the plant, you must adhere to the recommendations for caring for it.In this case, the shrub will be healthy and able to develop properly. Further more about all the intricacies of the process.
In summer, elderberry begins to grow actively and tie fruit. Given these circumstances, the soil should be moist, but not stagnant near the roots of the plant.
Did you know? In the Middle Ages, with the help of black elderberry, eyebrows and hair were dyed in dark color.
In the rainy season Aurea does not need watering, in this case it will be enough to carry out loosening the soil. During droughts, the plant needs to be watered once a week, pouring 10 liters of water under each bush.
It is necessary to feed elderberry bushes with nutrients, otherwise the plant will become thinner, chop, and stop bearing.
Fertilizer recommendations are as follows:
- phosphorus and potash fertilizers: used in spring during flowering;
- organics: make during the ovary fruit in the form of root dressing. Solid fertilizers must be embedded in the soil to a depth of about 10-12 cm, and liquid should be applied during irrigation. You can use manure, compost or infusion of chicken manure.
Did you know? In ancient Rome and Greece, black elderberry was considered a sacred plant. She was planted near houses to protect buildings from unclean forces.
Cut black elderberry is necessary in order to give the plant the desired shape, as well as rejuvenate and improve the shrub. Formative pruning should be done during the growing season. In the spring, branches that were frozen and damaged during the winter should be removed.
If you need not only to admire the plant, but also to harvest, you need to prune it with special care. On an adult shrub, shoots under 3 years old must be left, and on each of them several several two-year-old branches. Shoots older than 4 years old look unaesthetic and give a poor harvest.
Aurea black elderberry can be propagated in several ways:
- seed. Suitable time for sowing is spring or late fall. After the appearance of 2-3 leaves, seedlings should be dived. During the season, with proper care, the shrub can grow up to 30-40 cm;
- layering. In the spring, you need to choose an annual shoot, bend it to the ground and lay it in a previously dug groove. Then the shoots should be fixed with metal hooks and dug, leaving the tops above the ground. A year later, in the spring, shoots must be separated from the mother bush and planted;
- cuttings. In spring, cut the stalk, which is 20-30 cm long, from the annual developed branch, cut off the lower leaves, and then plant it in open ground to a depth of about 15 cm. Top of the stalk should be covered with a high polyethylene cap. After the appearance of new sheets, the shelter should be removed. Cuttings need to be landed on a permanent place the next year, in the spring.
Possible diseases and pests
Aurea black elderberry is highly resistant to pests and diseases. In rare cases, gardeners encounter when growing shrubs with aphids. This is a pest insect ranging in size from 0.3 to 0.8 mm, green, black or beige. It feeds on the juice of the plant, after which it becomes weak and fades. To get rid of this parasite, it is necessary to treat the plant with the Volaton insecticide at the rate of 20 g of the drug per 10 liters of water.
Use in landscape design
Elderberry Aurea varieties have a beautiful appearance, so it is actively used in landscape design. Thanks to the original foliage and bright flowering, the plant is planted in compositions with large compact shrubs. Elderberry also looks great as a tapeworm.
Shrub Aurea can decorate the landscape of the coastline of artificial reservoirs, strengthen slopes and cliffs. Also black elderberry can serve to create a hedge (green fence).
The black elderberry Aurea looks exotic, but at the same time unpretentious in leaving.Applying the above recommendations in practice, you can grow a bush of this variety, which will serve as a worthy decoration of your personal plot.