Detailed description of the varieties and types of daffodils
Among a wide variety of garden flowers, daffodils are very popular. Their main advantages are considered an excellent esthetic look, simplicity in cultivation and non-capriciousness in leaving. Find out what types of plants are described, what is their peculiarity, and which variety to choose for growing indoors - learn from the article.
Species and varieties of daffodils
Narcissus is a plant of the genus Monocotyledonous, a feature of which is the presence of corms, of different widths of ribbon-shaped leaves and a beautiful flower, consisting of a crown and perianth lobes (petals). Delicate single flowers of the culture are located at the top of leafless stems with a sheathed ceiling on the surface.
1- grade Snowball; 2- Edward Buxton; 3- Jeanne Dark; 4- Mount Hood; 5- Delibe; 6- Apricot
In nature, there are about 70 different species of daffodils, but thanks to breeding work and the creation of hybrids, today the number of cultivars is rapidly approaching 35,000. Scientists divide all varieties into 12 groups, among which only one refers to wild species, and the rest are the result of breeding work. Description of the most popular of them is presented later in the article.
Tubular (Trumpet) - garden flowers, which are distinguished by the presence on one strong and strong peduncle, up to 45 cm long, of a single, fairly large flower, up to 7–13 cm. The flower crown of the plant has an almost identical length with petals, and is visually similar to a tube gramophone. A similar feature of the plant was the emergence of the name of the group - tubular.
The tubes of the culture can be of different colors: red, white, orange, bright yellow. The color of the flowers, as usual, is white or yellow, there are specimens in which the tips are yellow-white. Tubular flowers are characterized by excellent resistance to frost, they are able to bloom perfectly in winter.
Did you know? In China, the daffodil is considered the main New Year's symbol, without which not a single Chinese family can do. In addition, the plant is symbolized with happiness and immortality.
These include the most successful varieties:
- white: Glacier, Kantara, Peter Bar;
- yellow: Golden Harvest, Mount Hood, Dutch Master, Easten Bonnet, Golden Spar, Musical Hall;
- pale cream: Milner;
- with two-tone tubes: Spring Glory.
Representatives of large-cupped (Large-cupped) daffodils have the largest of all plant species inflorescences, more than 12 cm in diameter. They are presented as 6 lobes of identical sizes and an elongated crown of a wave-like structure, which seems to be “flattened”. The color of the crowns is mainly intensely orange, pink, yellow, red and snow-white.
Perianth particles are white, yellow, or orange. The plant produces a single tubular peduncle up to half a meter. Around a strong long stem are elongated leaves in the amount of 2–4 units. Bulb of large-crowned specimens of small size, 2-3 cm in diameter.
Among the most popular varieties of the described group are noted: China Made, Velazquez, Kispruf, Smaragd, Fortune, Rosie Sunrise, Paola Veronese, Professor Einstein, Passionale, Ice Fallis.
As the name implies, Small-cupped daffodils are distinguished by the presence of small inflorescences, 5–8 cm, with a crown no more than 2/3 of the size of the petals. This group presents a wide variety of crown colors and perianth parts.
Did you know? Daffodil juice is toxic and harmful to other crops.That is why, before the formation of a bouquet composition, the flowers are kept in clean water for 24 hours.
There are specimens with white, pink, yellow, red in the middle with a small eye of green color, a crown. Petals in a plant of a similar color. Peduncle - strong, durable, low.
Among the most luxurious and spectacular daffodils can be noted double (Double), which are characterized by the presence of a terry crown or terry perianth. Often there are instances connecting these two options, so that the flower looks very original and spectacular.
Important! A significant disadvantage of terry representatives is that when wet, caused by generous surface moisture or rain, the flowers wilt, which often leads to their breaking.
Plants may have one or two color coloration. Mostly flowers are white or yellow, less often you can see a harmonious symbiosis of a scarlet crown and snow-white petals. Among the terry plant varieties, florists are especially appreciated by flower growers: Acropolis, Outer Space, Ice King, Exotic Beauty, Replit, Texas, Tahiti, Chirfulness.Terry flowers do not require special conditions for growing, easily take root on the site, are great for planting in the garden, on flower beds, for cutting.
Triandrus (Triandrus) or triandra are hybrid garden daffodils with miniature size and a small neat, goblet-shaped crown.
The advantages of triander specimens are considered to be their unconventional appearance, not capricious care, the ability to use to decorate flower beds, create original landscape compositions, rock gardens. The disadvantages of plants include low cold resistance, which should be taken into account during cultivation. Popular triandrus varieties are: Ice Wings, Waist, Havera, Liberty Bells.On a short, dense peduncle, about 25 cm, two or more flowers of a drooping form are formed with a narrow tube length and petals slightly thrown back. The crown color is different: white, yellow, green-yellow, golden.
The cyclamen-shaped daffodils (Cyclamineus) are stunted, grow up to 20 cm and are similar in appearance to the indoor flower - cyclamen. The plant produces a strong peduncle with a single inflorescence. Flowers of a drooping form, 5–8 cm in diameter, are represented by an elongated crown and large petals, strongly bent back.
Color light cream, yellow, apricot, white. The culture is characterized by an early flowering period. Due to the unusual appearance of the flowers, it is excellently suited as the main accent in the formation of alpine hills or flower beds. The demanded grades: Jenny, Kotinga, Beryl, Pipping Tom, Andalusia.
Representatives of Jonquilla (Jonquilla) daffodils belong to the category of heat-loving plants, are sensitive to cold weather, have an elegant aroma and highly decorative appearance. In the course of development, on a peduncle, 15–35 cm long, 2–8 flowers are formed, consisting of a short cup-shaped crown and a little bent rounded perianth particles.
The flowers are white or yellow, exude an unusually delicate and pleasant aroma, which is often used in the perfumery and cosmetology industries. Among the varieties the most valuable are: Baby Moon, Cherie, Golden Smile, Sun Disk, Step Forward.
Tatsetny or Tatsetovidny
Tacetta daffodils are distinguished by the presence of a dense, thickish peduncle, on which from 2 to 8 flowers with a delicate smell ripen. The crown is small, presented in the form of a glass, yellow or orange color.
Perianth particles are white, rounded in shape. Since representatives of this group of cultures have low winter hardiness, they are mainly used for distillation. Among the tatsetovidnyh varieties noted: Horace, Geranium, Minnou.
Very delicate and graceful poetic (Poeticus) daffodils are loved by flower growers due to their intense rich smell. The plant produces a thin peduncle, up to 45 cm, on which the solitary flowers of the drooping species ripen, up to 6 cm in size. Around the peduncle are narrow leaves of gray-green color.
The crown is almost flat, yellow with a red border, the petals are white or pale milk. Poetic daffodils react negatively to frost, and therefore require protection for the winter. Varieties: Milan, Actaea, Red Rome, Margaret Mitchell.
Split-corona plants are characterized by stunning beauty, high decorativeness, which they are provided with asymmetric round flowers. Their peculiarity is an unusual crown, which is "cut" into two segments, which creates the effect of a double row of petals. By color, the flowers are white, yellow, pinkish-white.
The most popular varieties are: Canasta, Baccarat, Orangerie, Papillon Blank, Chanterel, Split Corona. The most rare and extremely beautiful is the latter, the flowers of which resemble an exotic butterfly.The edges of the crown, and sometimes the perianth particles, have a slight fringe. The plant forms a strong long peduncle with a single inflorescence, with a diameter of 10-12 cm.
A group of wild daffodils unites all forms, species and natural hybrid forms of plants that grow in the wild. Their representatives have a low, not more than 20 cm, peduncle, on which small inflorescences of white, pale yellow color with a red or orange edging are formed.
Important! The described plants are not capricious, are not demanding of environmental conditions, but they prefer to grow in a Mediterranean climate.
Wild daffodils grow in colonies or even large fields. The areas of their greatest localization are: Europe - the territory of the Alps, Ukraine - the Carpathians, as well as the Russian Federation, Italy, Greece, Great Britain. Wild varieties include: Asturian daffodil, Brandushkovidny, Enveloped, Grooved.
How to care for a room daffodil
Beautiful graceful daffodils are not only “residents” of gardens or gardens, there are special varieties that are designed for home cultivation. Indoor plants are monocotyledonous perennial representatives of the Amaryllis family, which have small pear-shaped bulbs, elongated leaves, bare stems with single flowers.
The flowers consist of a tubular six-pointed funnel and small delicate petals. The color of the flowers in most cases is white or yellow, there are multi-colored specimens, as well as with unconventional blue, violet and deep pink colors.
Taking care of daffodils is easy. They are unpretentious, but to maintain health and decorative appearance, when caring for them, you must adhere to several important rules:
- Pot. Experts advise using medium-sized containers of ceramics, up to 20 cm high, no more than 15 cm wide for growing a culture. The container must necessarily have drainage holes that will drain excess water, thereby protecting the plant from rotting of the root system.
- The soil. For planting a flower, the use of a ready-made substrate intended for bulbs is allowed.You can prepare the soil yourself, using garden soil mixed with sand and sawdust. Hand-prepared soil must be decontaminated by spilling it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or by baking for 20 minutes in the oven at a temperature of + 180 ° С. It doesn’t matter which store-or-house soil is used, the main thing is that it is air- and moisture-permeable, loose, without large breasts and stickiness.
- Watering. In the first year of planting, the culture must provide regular hydration, which is carried out twice a week, focusing on drying the upper globe. It is especially important to organize good watering during flowering plants. After the flowers fade, the amount of moisture is gradually reduced. For irrigation measures use only high-quality filtered or well-defended water at room temperature.
- Top dressing. Experts advise not to neglect the procedures for feeding domestic daffodils, otherwise the processes of budding and rooting can be significantly delayed. As fertilizers, it is advisable to apply: before the appearance of the buds, potassium and nitrogen-based products, after the appearance of flowers - complex mineral fertilizers.
- Pruning. After the flowers are completely dry, they should be trimmed without touching the outlet of the leaves, which should dry itself. When all leaves die off, they are cut with a disinfected knife, corms are removed from the ground and placed in a cool place until spring.
Caring for indoor plants also includes preventive measures against fungi and pests. The flower can suffer from fungal infections with excessive soil moisture, lack of lighting, or non-compliance with the temperature regime. Fungi can quickly destroy the bulb, and in some cases it cannot be saved.
To combat ailments, fungicidal preparations are used. But you need to understand that their action is effective only at the initial stage of the disease. Of the pests, the most dangerous are bulb flies and nematodes. For their prevention, the plant is sprayed with insecticides.
Daffodils are simple, unpretentious, at the same time, very fragile, elegant, delicate, unlike each other flowers that can become a real highlight in a garden, flower bed or city park. Among the huge variety of varieties of culture, each grower will be able to choose the one that is most suitable in appearance, region of growth, flowering period.